Discover the PAT series

Discover the PAT series

The science of battery testing has reached the next level with the introduction of the PAT series.

Discover the PAT series

The science of battery testing has reached the next level.

Discover the PAT series

The science of battery testing has reached the next level with the introduction of the PAT series.

What is the PAT series?

The PAT series is a new generation of battery test cells that feature a unique single-use concept, which raises the standard of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery research. All test cells are built around the PAT-Core, which is a highly customizable single-use compartment for the test specimen. This series enables two- and three-electrode tests of Li-ion batteries.

All PAT series test cells are designed without sockets for direct cable connections. They must, therefore, be used with docking stations such as the PAT-Stand-1, PAT-Stand-16, or the temperature-controlled PAT-Chamber-16. Because the cable connections do not need to be renewed for each testing, the parallel battery tests enable the generation of more reliable test results with less effort and in a shorter period of time.

The PAT-Core

The PAT-Core is the heart of the PAT series

The first part of the PAT-Core is an insulation sleeve, which is made of polypropylene and is equipped with a built-in ring-shaped Li-reference electrode and a 260μm glass fiber separator. The insulation sleeve is pre-assembled under protective atmosphere at the EL-CELL® factory to ensure consistent quality for reproducible battery tests.

PAT-Core versions without a reference electrode or with a customized separator are available on request. As the current collectors, the upper and lower plungers are made of copper, aluminum, or stainless steel. This enables battery researchers to work exclusively with battery grade materials. Aluminum and copper plungers are single-use components, while the stainless steel plungers are reusable.

Different materials for your test case

The PAT-Core can be used with many different battery and capacitor types. The table below summarizes some of the most common test cases.

In general, when lithium metal is used as the negative electrode and when measuring half-cell impedances, we recommend sleeves with a built-in glass fiber separator rather than the thin technical separators such as Viledon and Celgard. Glass fiber is also the best choice when wettability is a potential issue (e.g. when using ionic liquids).

Battery TypeLower electrode (+)Upper electrode (-)Lower plunger single-use/re-useUpper plunger single-use/re-useSeparator
Li-metalLCO, NCA, NCM or LFPLiAl/SSCu/SSGF
Li-metalGraphite or siliconLiCu/SSCu/SSGF
Li-metalLTOLiAl or Cu/SSCu/SSGF
Li-ionLCO, NCA, NCM or LFPGraphiteAl/SSCu/SSGF or thin
Li-ionLFPLTOAl/SSAl or Cu/SSGF or thin
EDLCACACAl/SSAl/SSGF or thin
Li-ion capACLithiated graphiteAl/SSCu/SSGF or thin

Good to know: The PAT-Core components

Lower plunger

By default, the lower plunger serves as the positive current collector. It is available in different materials and in different “height numbers”. The proper plunger height must be chosen to ensure that the pre-assembled separator is not excessively bent during assembly of the PAT-Core. The proper plunger height number depends on both the thickness of the lower electrode and the thickness of the built-in separator. The following rules apply:

Contentbilder_Thickness_lower_electrode

For a separator thickness less than 100µm
Height number = thickness of lower electrode (in µm) + 50

For a separator thickness more than 100µm:
Height number = thickness of lower electrode (in µm) + half of the separator thickness (in µm)

We supply lower plungers with height numbers between 50 and 800 in steps of 50.

Example: If you are using an insulation sleeve with a 260µm glass fiber separator, together with a 90µm thick LCO cathode, then the above equation yields a height number of 90 + 260/2 = 220. The closest available height number is 200.

Upper plunger

By default, the upper plunger serves as the negative current collector. Only one plunger height is available, but it will fit any thickness of the upper electrode up to 800µm. The upper plunger is available in different materials: stainless steel 1.4404, Al 99.5% and Cu 99.9%.

Spring force in relation to the upper electrode thickness: 

Please note that the height of the upper electrode has an impact on the force applied by the spring on the cell stack. Different springs are available as spare components for the PAT series test cells; please refer to the corresponding manual.

Contentbilder_Spring_force

Insulation sleeve

The insulation sleeve is available with and without a ring-shaped lithium metal reference ring and with three different types of separators: a double-layered separator comprised of a 180 µm thick nonvowen PP cloth (Freudenberg FS 2226 E) and a 38 µm thick microporous UHMW-PE membrane (Lydall Solupor 5P09B), a 260µm borosilicate glass fiber separator (Whatman GF/A), and a 25µm nonwoven polyester separator pasted with Al2O3 (Freudenberg Viledon FS 3005-25).

SeparatorFS-5P (Freudenberg Viledon FS 2226E + Lydall Solupor 5P09B)Freudenberg Viledon FS 3005-25Whatman GF/A
Thickness220µm25µm260µm
MaterialPP fiber/PE membranePET fiber, Al2O3 Borosilicate glass fiber
PorosityFS: 67%/ 5P: 86%55%91%
WettabilityGoodGoodExcellent
Resistance to dendritesGoodPoorModest
Ability for full cell cycle testsExcellentGoodGood
Ability for half cell cycle tests (vs. Li)ExcellentPoorModest
Ability for full cell EISExcellentExcellentExcellent
Ability for half cell EISModestPoorGood
Order no (sleeve with Li reference)ECC1-00-0210-VECC1-00-0210-AECC1-00-0210-O
Other separators and customized solutions are available on request. Furthermore, the sleeve is available in a disassembled state, either with or without the lithium reference ring. The standard versions are shown in the table below.

Contentbilder_Insulation_sleeve

Insulation sleeveArticle no.Type of testing
with lithium metal ring reference, with double-layered FS-5P separator (220 µm)ECC1-00-0210-V/x3 electrodes
with lithium metal ring reference, with Viledon separator (25 µm)ECC1-00-0210-A/x 3 electrodes
with lithium metal ring reference, with glass fiber separator (260 µm) ECC1-00-0210-O/x 3 electrodes
without ring reference, with double-layered FS-5P separator (220 µm)ECC1-00-0210-W/x2 electrodes
without ring reference, with Viledon separator (25 µm)ECC1-00-0210-B/x 2 electrodes
without ring reference, with glass fiber separator (260 µm)ECC1-00-0210-P/x 2 electrodes

PAT-Core features

Long-term tests

The PAT-Core enables battery tests with a three-electrode setup and a duration of 1000 hours or more. This advantage is due to the new ring-shaped Li-reference electrode, which is far more time stable than point-type reference electrodes. The PAT-Core is, therefore, the perfect test system for aging studies.

Long-term cycling test of NCM vs. GraphiteLong-term cycling test of NCM vs. Graphite

Less cross contamination and corrosion

The single-use concept of the PAT series helps to reduce cross contamination between subsequent tests. Corrosion issues are also reduced. The PAT-Core consists of three single-use parts: insulation sleeve (PP), upper plunger (Cu as standard), and lower plunger (Al as standard).

All these parts are assembled, packed, and sealed under controlled atmosphere at the EL-CELL® factory. Moreover, single-use parts do not need to be cleaned and dried, which circumvents the risk of contamination with water and reduces the effort in the lab.

Please note that upper and lower plungers are also available as reusable versions in stainless steel.

Insulation sleeves ready for use, packaged under argonInsulation sleeves ready for use, packaged under argon

Half-cell impedance spectra

With the ring reference built into the PAT sleeve, the half-cell impedance can be measured as easily as the full-cell impedance.

Full and half cell impedance spectra of NCA vs. Graphite (3.8 V full cell voltage)Full and half cell impedance spectra of NCA vs. Graphite (3.8 V full cell voltage)

Easy electrolyte filling

The PAT-Cell can be easily filled with electrolyte during the assembly procedure. The user needs only a micro-pipette to drip a defined amount of electrolyte onto the separator, which is factory preinstalled in the insulation sleeve of the PAT-Core.

The amount of electrolyte used is typically between 50 and 200μL, depending on the specific components used.

Tight test cells

The PAT-Cell is completely airtight. This is ensured by the special PE seal that is clamped between the double cutting rings of the cell lid and the cell body. This sealing concept guarantees ultra-low leakage and enables operation of the PAT-Cell outside of the glovebox.

PE-SealsPE-Seals

Increased productivity

The new PAT series improves productivity of battery testing. The single-use concept avoids effort that is related to cleaning and disassembling of the PAT-Cores. When used with a PAT-Stand-16, time for connecting the test cells with the potentiostat for every new battery test is saved.

Moreover, the PAT-Stand-16 saves space in the lab; its compact design holds up to 16 PAT-Cells. All these features increase the productivity of battery testing and facilitates high-throughput testing.

PAT-Stand-16 with PAT-Cells in a climate chamberPAT-Stand-16 with PAT-Cells in a climate chamber

Sample test results

Monitoring of half cell voltages during the initial cycles of NCA vs. GraphiteMonitoring of half cell voltages during the initial cycles of NCA vs. Graphite
Full and half cell impedance spectra of NCA vs. Graphite at a full cell voltage of 3.8VFull and half cell impedance spectra of NCA vs. Graphite at a full cell voltage of 3.8V
Long-term cycling test of NCM vs. GraphiteLong-term cycling test of NCM vs. Graphite

Products of the PAT series

Test cells

PAT-Cell

Leadless test cell for high throughput testing of Li-ion battery materials using the innovative PAT-Core concept.

  • Ability to conduct long-term half cell measurements with three electrodes
  • No need to clean or dry cell components due to single-use concept
  • Reproducible and homogeneous mechanical pressure on electrodes
Purpose/testing2-electrode, 3-electrode
ElectrolytesAprotic (e.g. LiPF6, R4NBF4)
Available current collectorsCu, Al, SS

Product details

ECC-PAT-Core

Electrochemical test cell with reference electrode using the PAT-Core concept.

  • Fewer mistakes from corrosion and cross contamination
  • No need to clean or dry cell components
  • Easy and reliable electrolyte filling during assembly
  • Reliable sealing with PE seal and double cutting rings
Purpose/testing2-electrode, 3-electrode
ElectrolytesAprotic (e.g. LiPF6, R4NBF4)
Available current collectorsCu, Al, SS

Product details

PAT-Cell-Aqu

Test cell for aqueous electrolytes and non-lithium battery systems.

  • Superior corrosion resistance against aqueous electrolytes
  • Also applicable to aprotic battery chemistries with special demands on corrosion resistance
  • Specialized PAT-Core with reusable plunger made of PEEK polymer and gold current collectors
Purpose/testing2-electrode, 3-electrode
ElectrolytesAqueous ( e.g. H2SO4, KOH); Aprotic
Available current collectorsAu, Pt, Ni

Product details

PAT-Cell-Press

Leakproof test cell for measuring gas evolution.

  • PAT-Core design with or without reference electrode
  • Laser welded pressure sensor, 0 to 3 bar abs
  • Electrode feedthroughs with glass-to-metal seals
Purpose/testing2-electrode, 3-electrode, gas analysis
ElectrolytesAprotic ( e.g. LiPF6, R4NBF4)
Available current collectorsCu, Al, SS

Product details

PAT-Cell-Press-Aqu

Pressure test cell for aqueous electrolytes and non-lithium battery systems

  • Superior corrosion resistance against aqueous electrolytes
  • Laser welded pressure sensor, 0 to 3 bar abs
  • Specialized PAT-Core with reusable plunger made of PEEK polymer and gold current collectors
Purpose/testing2-electrode, 3-electrode, gas analysis
ElectrolytesAqueous ( e.g. H2SO4, KOH); Aprotic
Available current collectorsAu, Pt, Ni

Product details

PAT-Cell-HT

Heat resistant PAT series test cell for up to 200°C

  • PAT-series test cell for 2-or 3-electrode testing at elevated temperatures
  • Continuous operating temperature: up to 200°C
  • Demountable HT-sleeve for self-installation
Purpose/testing2-electrode, 3-electrode
ElectrolytesAprotic; compatible with solid state membranes
Available current collectorsCu, Al, SS

Product details

Docking / Test stations

PAT-Tester-i-16

The PAT-Tester-i-16 integrates a temperature controlled cell chamber and docking station with a battery tester into one single instrument.

  • 16 independent channels for PAT-series test cells
  • Each channel with fully featured potentiostat / galvanostat / impedance analyzer
  • Integrated Peltier-temperature-control with a temperature range of +5 to +80°C
Testing Capacityup to 16 test cells
DataloggerSimultaneous recording of both half-cell voltages and sensor signals (e.g. temperature, pressure
Additional featuresMulti channel galvanostat / potentionstat / impedance analyzer; Temperature controlled cell chamber (Peltier)

Product details

PAT-Chamber-16

Temperature-controlled docking station for PAT series test cells

  • Ready for up to 16 PAT-Cells or PAT-Cell-Press for pressure monitoring
  • With data acquisition of cell current, cell voltage, half-cell voltages, global temperature, individual cell pressure
  • Compatible with all of today’s potentiostats and battery testers
Testing Capacityup to 16 test cells
DataloggerCell Current, Cell voltage, Half cell voltage, Global temperature, Individual cell pressure
Additional featuresTemperature controlled cell chamber (Peltier)

Product details

PAT-Stand-16

High throughput docking station for up to 16 PAT-Cells

  • 4×4 docking station for up to 16 PAT-Cells
  • Integrated data logger for recording half-cell voltages and temperature
  • Can be placed on the bench or inside a temperature chamber
Testing Capacityup to 16 test cells
DataloggerCell Current, Cell voltage, Half cell voltage, Tray temperature

Product details

PAT-Stand-4

Docking station for up to four PAT-Cells

  • Compatible with all of today’s multi-channel potentiostats and battery testers
  • Saves wiring effort in the lab
  • Can be placed on the bench top, inside a temperature chamber or inside a glove box
Testing Capacityup to 4 test cells
Datalogger-

Product details

PAT-Stand-1

The ideal docking station for individual battery testing

  • Can be placed on the bench-top, inside a temperature chamber, or inside a glove box
  • Docking station for a single PAT-Cell or PAT-Cell-Press
  • Saves wiring effort
Testing CapacitySingle test cell
Datalogger-

Product details

PAT-Heater-4

Heated chamber for four PAT-Cell-HT

  • Heated chamber from 10°C > ambient temperature up to 200°C
  • 4 x 1 docking station for up to four PAT-Cell-HT
  • Flexible wiring due to easy-to-access banana sockets
Testing Capacityup to 4 PAT-Cell-HT
Datalogger-
Additional featuresHeated chamber from 10°C > ambient temperature up to 200°C

Product details

PAT compatibility table
What is the right test / docking station for your PAT-Cell?

Docking / Test stationPAT-CellPAT-Cell-AquPAT-Cell-PressPAT-Cell-Press-AquPAT-Cell-HTPAT-Cell-Aqu-HT
PAT-Stand-1CCCCCC
PAT-Stand-1 + PAT-Press Box + T-ChamberCCC T PC T PCC
PAT-Stand-4CCCCCC
PAT-Tray/PAT-Stand-16CCCCCC
PAT-Chamber-16CCC T PC T PCC
PAT-Tester-i-16CCC T PC T PCC
PAT-Heater-4C TC T
Supported features:Colors:Colors:
C: charge/discharge/impedanceall test cell features supported
T: temperature controlsome test cell features not fully supported
P: gas pressureP: gas pressuretest cell incompatibletest cell incompatible

Videos

You can download all of our videos directly from our video page.

Downloads

PAT-Core User Manual
Release1.01
TypePDF
Size1.1 MB
Download

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